A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study on Clinical and Laboratory Profile of Chronic Kidney Disease in Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Patients at a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital, India

Author(s): Arumugam Elumalai1, Navin Boopathy2, Nivedha Balakrishnan3

Diabetic nephropathy is the major cause for chronic kidney disease (CKD) in India,
but there is plethora of non-diabetic causes of CKD. This study was conducted to
analyse the aetiological profile of CKD, compare demographic details, clinical
characteristics, laboratory parameters between diabetic and non-diabetic causes
of CKD.
This is a comparative cross-sectional study conducted in a tertiary centre at
Maduranthagam, Tamil Nadu, on 250 subjects. The study population included all
renal failure cases diagnosed in the study setting during the period December 2017
- December 2019. CKD grade is assessed as per National Kidney Foundation (NKF
/ KDOQI) staging system. The quantitative variables were analysed by mean, and
standard deviation. Categorical variables were analysed by frequency and
250 patients were included in the analysis; 49.20 % were diabetics with a mean
age of 62.81 ± 10.44 years, and 50.80 % were non-diabetics with a mean age of
59.24 ± 10.46 years. Among the non-diabetics, 88.98 % had hypertension and
51.22 % among diabetics had hypertension. 55 subjects had both diabetes and
hypertension. In the diabetes group, 39.84 % patients had trace proteinuria, 9.76
% had proteinuria +, 4.88 % had proteinuria ++ and 45.53 % participants had
proteinuria +++. Among non-diabetics, 51.97 % had trace proteinuria and 40.94
% had proteinuria +++. In both groups, majority of patients had grade 5 renal
failure with 57.72 % among diabetics and 56.69 % among non-diabetics.
The clinical and laboratory profile was significantly different among the two
groups. In diabetic CKD, intensified risk factor control of blood glucose and HbA1c
was needed, while in non-diabetic CKD, better blood pressure control measures
was needed.