Celine Machiyanickal Issac
Lupus Erythematosus (LE) is a group of heterogenous autoimmune diseases with an array of manifestations ranging from
cutaneous lesions to life-threatening systemic manifestations. Cutaneous manifestations are the second most common feature
and it serves as an important diagnostic aid. The nonspecific skin lesions are associated with more active disease.
The aim of the study is to study the pattern and prevalence of cutaneous manifestations in LE and to study the correlation
between cutaneous manifestations and systemic involvement.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Study comprised of 48 patients of lupus erythematosus who attended the Department of Dermatology and Venereology in a
tertiary referral centre from a period of November 2010 to November 2012. Patients were subjected to detailed clinical
examination, routine investigations, ANA, anti-dsDNA, ANA profile, non-lesional skin biopsy for lupus band test.
48 patients were taken for the study. The peak incidence was in the age group of 30-40 (33.33%) yrs. There was female
predominance, the ratio being 5.86:1. Discoid Lupus Erythematosus (DLE) constitutes 37.5% and Systemic Lupus
Erythematosus (SLE) 62.5%. Majority of DLE patients (38.89%) presented late in 5-9 yrs., whereas SLE patients presented
early within 1-6 months (50%). Most frequent presenting features were arthralgia (54.17%), oral ulcers (45.83%). Renal system
was the most common system affected (16.67%). Most common haematological abnormality was anaemia and raised ESR
(40%). Most common immunological abnormality was raised ANA in 66.7% and raised anti-dsDNA (60%). Most frequent
biochemical abnormality was albuminuria and raised 24-hours urine protein. Lupus band was positive in 58.33% and all had
renal involvement. Mortality was 6.67%.
In this study, we got comparable results in epidemiological parameters like age and distribution with other studies. The incidence
of ANA negative SLE was higher (33.33%) in our study. Though majority of patients with renal involvement had a positive lupus
band test, a statistical significance could not be sought in this regard on account of low sample size.