Seshagiri Koripadu1, Harischandra Venkata Yanamandala2, Sreesharsha Yarlagadda3
Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases worldwide imposing a substantial social burden on both children and adults. The incidence and prevalence of childhood asthma is increasing worldwide including India. The aim of this study is to study the clinical features of bronchial Asthma, measure the Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) in asthmatic children and observe its response to bronchodilator therapy and compare the PEFR values in cases with controls.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
This is a case control study conducted on total of 100 cases and 100 controls were selected according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. After detailed history, clinical examination and relevant investigations, the PEFR was recorded in children between 5 - 15 years of age group with bronchial Asthma before and after nebulisation with salbutamol. They were compared with PEFR values of normal children from same population in same age group and sex.
63% cases were male and 37% cases were female; 76% cases were from urban area compared to 24% cases from rural area. Family history of Asthma was found in 40% cases. The median respiratory rate of cases was significantly more than that of controls. Cold and upper respiratory tract infections were important precipitating factors. Cough and wheeze was present in all cases (100%). The median pre-PEFR of cases was 120 L/min, the mean post-PEFR of cases was 149 L/min. The mean improvement in PEFR after salbutamol nebulisation was 23%. The median PEFR of controls was 200 L/min. Asthma is positively associated with height and weight and negatively associated with pre-PEFR.
In the present study, precipitating factors or triggers for asthma are cold air and URTI. Pre-PEFR was 81% of post-PEFR with single dose of salbutamol nebulisation (0.5%) and improvement of PEFR was 23%. Though there was good response to drug, the post-PEFR was 75% of that of the controls.