Vijayalaxmi Ambati1, Sudhakar Ajmera2, Akhila Akula3
Neonatal Sepsis is the most important cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Neonatal sepsis is diagnosed when generalised systemic features are associated with pure growth of bacteria from one or more sites. In developing countries like ours, neonatal mortality (death in the first 28 days of life per 1000 live births) due to all causes is about 34 per 1000 live births, most of these deaths occur in the first week of life. In developing countries, sepsis is the commonest cause of mortality responsible for 30% to 50% of 5 million neonatal deaths every year.
Detailed studies on the clinical manifestations and laboratory profile of neonatal septicaemia in rural India are uncommon. Good laboratory facilities, especially blood culture, are frequently unavailable in the rural healthcare setting, resulting in the non-availability of relevant data on culture-proven neonatal sepsis. Although a number of studies have been made in the past to understand the demographic pattern of the disease, a sincere effort has been made in this present study to understand the disease and its clinical manifestations and also to understand the demographic patterns of the disease. This study is intended to help the practising paediatrician to understand and also help him to identify before any crisis of progression occurs.
OBJECTIVES AND METHODS
??? It is an observational cross-sectional study conducted in NICU, Mahatma Gandhi Memorial Hospital from November 2013 to October 2014.
??? To study the incidence of neonatal septicaemia among the cases admitted in our NICU, Mahatma Gandhi Memorial Hospital, Warangal.
??? To compare the results of clinical diagnosis statistically with that of the confirmed cases of septicaemia (by blood culture reports) taking different demographic patterns into consideration.
Out of 2992 NICU admissions in the study period from November 2013 to October 2014, the incidence of proven septicaemia was 6.58%. Lethargy, respiratory distress and feeding difficulties were common clinical manifestations. Hypothermia, abdominal distension, vomiting, apnoea, depressed neonatal reflexes were more frequently seen in preterm neonates than term. Mortality was more in males, EOS, preterm and in very low birth weight neonates.
In the present study taking the different demographic patterns into consideration, the accuracy with which the clinical diagnosis and the blood culture reports can diagnose immediately and the progression of the disease can be halted is shown.